The 11,500 miles leovegas 22 free spins Urdaneta crossed while returning to Mexico was then the longest sea journey ever made without landing.
They could be sailed by 40 or fewer, but carried crew complements of jääkiekon mm 2018 video veikkaus between 75 and, as the ships grew larger, 200.
Europeans soon realised that they had the means to cut out epiphone casino vs dot vs sheraton those middlemen: spectacularly advanced maritime technology.It spent months being pushed back to Asia the naval equivalent of trying to climb up the down escalator before the crew finally surrendered in despair to local Portuguese forces.The most common product of severe crowding was infectious disease.Friedrich Engels, observing the disease, malnourishment and suffering rampant in Londons nightmarish 19th-century slums, would write that everything which here arouses horror and indignation is of recent origin, belongs to the industrial epoch.In Vanguard of Empire (1993 Roger C Smith points out that this overcrewing was due to the (correct) assumption that many of the crew would die.This led to some amazingly inhumane decisions by those in charge.By then, it was just one part of an expansive network of global shipping.In fact, since the bulk of salaries was paid only at the end of a round trip, allowing half of all crew to die would have been a double cost saving.The ships arrived from Mexico laden with silver, which the Chinese badly needed for their rapidly expanding monetary system.Though latrines that cantilevered over the ocean were available on some galleons, many sailors didnt use them, instead shitting into the ships bilge, or even in the general hold.Trinidad, attempted to sail back across the Pacific the way it had come.But status didnt provide much safety: by the end of his journey, two officers, one pilots mate and the Captain Commander were buried at sea, their bodies dragged down by earthen jars tied around their ankles.As lethargy overwhelmed them, the rest of their flesh began to decompose before their eyes, skin taking on the soft touch of fungus, and black ulcers swelling from.They returned carrying not just Indonesian spice Spains original object but Chinese silk and porcelain, and Japanese jewels and preserves.The French sailor François Pyrard de Laval wrote in 1610 that typical Portuguese ships around India were mighty foul and stink withal; the most men not troubling themselves to go on deck for their necessities.But a rationalistic approach to illness was, even then, centuries away.
What they werent, mostly, was dead.
Advancement past this theory was hampered by a Papal ban on human dissection for research, not lifted until 1482.